Wednesday, October 6, 2010

Chadwick and the Neutron: A "Brainblast" into the Future of the Atom


       Hi, my name is Jimmy Neutron. What comes to mind when you hear the word “Neutron”? If you have ever had young children, you may think that this term refers to a member of my family, or maybe me, the animated “Boy Genius” introduced to viewers on Nickelodeon in 2002. Besides thinking of me, most scientists would tell you that a “neutron,” similar to its well known brother the “proton,” is a subatomic particle found in the nucleus of all atoms and isotopes beyond protium, the isotope of hydrogen with no neutrons whatsoever. Unlike the proton, however, a neutron carries no ‘net’ electric charge and has a mass slightly larger than that of a proton. According to WolframAlpha, the mass of a neutron ≈ 1.001378 proton masses [12]. Speculated as to its possible existence as early as 1920 by Ernest Rutherford, its discovery in 1932 by English physicist, James Chadwick, signaled the beginning of the era of the common model for atomic structure and the basis of the picture of particle physics that remains valid today.

       I don't know if you knew this, but my name full name, James Isaac Neutron, is actually a combination of Sir Isaac Newton, the father of classical physics, and physicist Sir James Chadwick, who was nicknamed "Jimmy Neutron" after his discovery of the neutron in 1932.

So why do these neutrons matter anyways? For if Chadwick had never discovered the neutron, we would not have stunning pictures like this: two neutron stars colliding and giving off gamma-ray bursts.

Before we delve into the world of the wonderful neutron, let us first review some basic information about the atom:

        The smallest particle from which matter is created was named “atom,” meaning that which cannot be divided, by the Greek philosopher Democritus about 2500 years ago [3]. Thus, while we all now know that matter can be further subdivided, the atom remains the smallest structure that an element or material can be divided without changing its characteristics. It is composed of a dense, central nucleus surrounded by shells of negatively charged electrons bound to the nucleus by an electromagnetic force. The atomic nuclei of all elements and isotopes after protium contain a mix of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons. Atoms are classified according to the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus: the number of protons specifies the chemical element, and the number of neutrons specifies the isotope of the element.

        In order to describe to you the process by which Rutherford and Chadwick came across the neutron, I have created three glogsters and a prezi to help explain some general areas regarding their work and, hopefully, give you a greater understanding of the role and discovery of the wonderful neutron!!! To view the Glogs and the prezi simply click on the four links below:

Glog on Biographical Information of James Chadwick
Glog on the Predecessors of the Discovery of the Neutron
Prezi on Chadwick's Main Experiment
Glog on the Significant Effects of the Discovery of the Neutron

For those history lovers out there, here is a primary source for your enjoyment. It is the letter that Chadwick wrote to Nature about his discovery of the neutron: Chadwick's Letter to Nature

And just for fun, here is a picture of James Chadwick created with words used throughout my description of the discovery of the neutron. (This image was created with the web tool "tagxedo" at
To view the Works Cited for this blog posting, simply click on this link to view the PDF file:
Works Cited File


  1. Great job, Chris! Your whole blog and presentation is very well organized and thought out! Your information is VERY thorough and descriptive. I especially like the picture of Chadwick using words and your prezi on Chadwick's main experiment. One suggestion I would have though would be to simplify the content of your glog on significant events of the discovery of the neutron because I felt a little bit overwhelmed reading it although it was very interesting. Overall, fantastic job!

  2. Wow Chris, your entire presentation was great! You really gave an in depth explanation of not only the experiment itself but the entire background of previous ideas of the atom. As well presented as all of this information was, however, I agree with Kira. The fact is that even though your information is great and well presented, it is all a little bit overwhelming and takes so long to read through. Other than that, I loved it!

  3. Chris.... your blog postings never cease to amaze me. Wow, absolutely incredible. I definitely have to comment on your incredibly unique way to introduce your subject with Jimmy Neutron. It gets the reader interested with something they are familiar with and more excited for about what they are going to read. It is a really nice creative touch to have introductions like that. Overall, the presentation was beyond organzied, descriptive, and interesting. I am espically in awe of the Chadwick picture at the end. How cool! I can't believe you found an awesome site like that. I'll definitely have to check that out in the future for my blog postings. Excellent job Chris! Keep up the fantastic work!!

  4. Wow! You did a really great job on your blog! You gave very detailed and in depth information throughout the entire thing. I did not know that about Jimmy Neutron, so that was really interesting for me also. Great job!

  5. 3d bioprinting = Immortality = go to stars

  6. ...interstellar travel constant acceleration (Sun-Deneb: 1000g)... Earth...the 2 ships that will go formation flying for mutual assisting if there are problems...indestructible structures made of Hexapentas material, awaiting in airport the arrival of passengers... Day 1: zero-speed... THE SHIPS TAKEOFF►... navigation computer places on screen the spacecraft in the center of sphere...spherical\tridimensional\spatial Heading: Deneb... Antimatter rocket engines...ON... Here we go...goooooo!...1g...10g...100g...constant acceleration cruise: 1000g (9.8 kms/sec²)... Inside the living areas (the same as going submerged in water: constant acceleration downwards...less...constant thrust, constant acceleration, from water upwards)...the gravitational transformers, perfectly synchronized with the acceleration, running: 1000g constant acceleration toward the floor ↓↓(motors)↓↓...less...999g constant acceleration toward the ceiling ↑↑(gravitational transformers)↑ = 1g constant acceleration toward the floor↓... 8.5 hours: light-speed = 1c...the fusion reactor as an artificial sun illuminating the immense Vital Support Gardens to lowering, from their comfortable apartments, cheerful passage to the pool...the electromagnetic shield anti-radiation...antigravity fields generator run forward, working: light objects away from the path of the ship...and trajectory ship away from the heavy objects...superluminal-speed > 1c... 42.5 hours: reaches hyperluminal-speed = 5c... Day 508: Half Journey...1000 light years...high hyperluminal-speed = 1435.39c... OFF engines...a few minutes of weightlessness during maneuver...the ship rotates 180º around its axis...motors ON again and... ◄STARTS TO BRAKE... Day 1017 (2.79 years): End Path party...2000 light The forever young passage of the 1st Immortal Generation (3D Bioprinting...Telomerase...modified Biological Timers...) disembarks at destination: an extra-stellar planet which came errant to orbit of Deneb giant.

  7. (4)...interstellar travel (thousands G of constant acceleration)... What is a Force?... Gravity...two objects attract between them emitting gravitons, how two pirate-ships hooked by ropes with hooks from the other... Each emitted graviton perhaps would go invisibly united to its emitter object, such as if would go an elastic cord with infinite length and when arrives till the other object, by far that it is, "knows" toward where has that "pulling"...never are confused the gravitons emitted by different sources "pulling" toward do not is... The gravitons that come from Andromeda they "pull" toward Andromeda, and do not toward the Magellanic Clouds... That graviton comes climbing toward the steel object which falls from a tower...when arrives to the object, what finds?...sighted from its perspective finds which the object in reality does not exist...only "sees" a vacuum, here a nucleus of protons and neutrons...far over there some electrons in orbit...((the distance between Earth and Moon is enormously major than the diameters Earth + Moon; the distance between an atomic nucleus and its orbital electrons is enormously major than the diameters of all their subatomic particles added))... Where "hooking for pulling" from this object which does not exist?, asks itself...also asks itself from where comes, how went emitted because over there also only was vacuum and some subatomic particles here and there... Ah, I know..."will hook" in the magnetic force lines which go away for this huge vacuum joining the nuclei of protons (+) with their far electrons (-), in these force lines made with Photons emitted from those nuclei and electrons...but, they are lines of electromagnetic force and I am a graviton... Ah, from there comes a graviton of here, from where comes?, perhaps from interior of some Proton where the gluons, what an adhesive!...indestructibly join quarks to form it...and goes to the place from where I come for make the same, "hooking for pulling". So that perhaps...Graviton hooks in Proton that seems strong... The Gravitational Force how solution...someday all spacecrafts always will go to thousands G of constant acceleration... The Universe is just there for us... What is a Force?...who emits it?...where it "hooks"?...

  8. (4b)...interstellar travel (thousands G of constant acceleration)... The entire Universe gyrating. The "phantom position"... LMC galaxy moves around the Milky Way... When it is in an orbital point emits its gravitons toward here...when it is to quite a few degrees from point before those emitted gravitons do not can "pulling" toward the already "phantom position" where LMC is not placed now, so that the Gravitons must have a quality of trajectories reorganization it depends moving of the object, the new emitted would go away auto-correcting the trajectories of the gravitons before for the attraction always being toward the actual position... Andromeda and Milky Way... The Photons it transit by the "phantom position" because we see Andromeda not only how it was 2 million years ago, but also "where it was" at that time. At different way those emitted Gravitons in each place then must go away course actualizing among them... Matter/Antimatter annihilation rockets... to 9800 kms/sec²... Day 508: Half Journey...1 million light years...high hyperluminal-speed = 0.0455 light years/sec... In 2.79 years, here is Andromeda... spherical\tridimensional\spatial Heading...intergalactic navigation in Starships to thousands G of constant acceleration...

  9. ...interstellar travel constant acceleration (times to reach light-speed)... 1g (9.8 mts/sec²)=354 days ...↓... 0.5g (4.9 mts/sec²)=1.94 years ...↓... 0.25g (2.45 mts/sec²)=3.88 years ...↓... 0.1g (98 cms/sec²)=9.7 years ...↓... 0.01g (9.8 cms/sec²)=97 years ...↓... 0.001g (9.8 mms/sec²)=970 years ______ Huge constant acceleration the ship, living areas to 1g: inside the living areas..."the same as going submerged in water"...↓↓↓↓g (motors)...less...↑↑↑g (gravitational transformers)=↓g... ...↨... 2g (19.6 mts/sec²)=177 days ...↨... 10g (98 mts/sec²)=35.4 days ...↨... 100g (980 mts/sec²)=3.54 days ...↨... 1000g (9.8 kms/sec²)=8.5 hours ...↨... 10000g (98 kms/sec²)=51 minutes ...↨... 50000g (490 kms/sec²)=10.2 minutes ...↨... 100000g (980 kms/sec²)=5.1 minutes ...↨... 1 million G (9800 kms/sec²)=30.6 seconds... ((typewrite: interstellar travel constant acceleration))

  10. Interstellar travel -without religion- religious demented are burning the forests in the entire World, and the miserable occult power Rome-saint (terror against reason, how it did to Galileo Galilei; recent threat: the 3rd World War has already begun) protects to other credos and silences the global media for the innocent people do not know it a fact already evident: IS TRUTH THAT RELIGION IS LIE.

  11. (orbital station bike wheel-1g)... geostationary orbit, a huge "bike-wheel" is gyrating around its own axis for have 1g-centrifugal. Wheel held in place with 4 CABLES (each cable with a track for Train, for both trains crossing ↓↑) FORMING THE STRUCTURE OF A RHOMBUS♦ (minor diagonal of rhombus is the gyration-axis of the Station-Wheel)...rhombus´s below, the carbon nanotubes Track towards Earth...rhombus´s above, the Cable towards a higher counterweight... if...WHEEL´s RADIUS = 250 mts... Wheel gyration´s Axis length = rhombus´s minor diagonal = ½ Wheel´s radius = 125 mts (axis could be a resistant hollow tube with for example 20 mts in diameter with an adequate wall´s thickness, hollow which could serving how tank of anything, e.g. air, or tank of frozen water storage no totally full, for volume expansion from liquid to ice without tank, Axis, breaking, thawing using solar-heat)... Cable´s length of the rhombus´s side = Wheel diameter = 500 mts ((also how Wheel´s supporting, instead of a rhombus, can be a narrow Rectangular structure ▄▄▄▄▄▄ of rigid girder with dimension sides slightly majors than Wheel´s diameter and wide, e.g. Wheel´s diameter 500 mts and wide 50 mts...rectangle´s sides: 510 mts length, 60 mts wide. Rectangle with a cable/track (length=Wheel´s diameter) in each vertex, forming a long isosceles triangle ───◄at both rectangle´s minor sides►───)). Wheel´s ZONE-1g: habitable length = 1571 mts*50 mts wide (separation at both sides between Cable and Circumference of the gyratory Wheel, approx.= 5 mts, adjusting this separation installing an Axis with major or minor length, as much as shorter Axis...stronger and, for easy train´s passing, an angle nearer to 180º value in both rhombus´s-vertex, minor diagonal, where are the Big Soundless-♫-Bearings of Axis´s-insertion...a few Electrical Motors fed with Solar-Energy maintain automatically the gyration-speed counteracting the slow braking by friction from the Bearings...besides of Bearings: main Maglev system also for the gyration an Axis´s supporting, leaving the Bearings only how secondary security system...with a slight roominess between each Bearing and its exterior subjection, into the roominess all around...little solid Pistons radial extensible and retractable... Axis´s subjection: extensible ON, with Bearings; extensible OFF, with Maglev. With a sufficient cables tension coming from the counterweight, if Axis resists: the rhombus structure is undeformable)*10 Floors with 25 mts in height each one, gyrating 360º each 31 seconds, angular-speed = 11.61º/sec, linear-speed (tangential) = 182 kms/h... Station-Wheel´s GYRATION: AXIS IN PERPENDICULAR (90º) ORIENTATION TO THE ORBITAL TRAJECTORY...and so, while Station-Wheel follows its geostationary orbit, the Wheel does Not change the spatial-orientation of its axis, and thus there are Not Precession forces actuating (and thus there is Not torsion´s force againts Track)...

  12. (2) (orbital station bike wheel-1g)... Wheel with maneuver´s tangential-rockets for gyration´s start, or...gyration emergency stop...and maneuver´s axial-rockets for reorientation of Wheel´s axis, if it is necessary: because the Earth axis slightly and very slowly goes oscillating cyclically due to nutation and precession...that oscillation evidently produces transversal traction pulling of the Track towards aside from its anchoring on equator, thus would have an also slight pendular movement side to side and it would produce precession´s movements of the Wheel´s axis and thus a not wished torsion of the Track...but the system must supporting lateral charges, in the same orbital plane and thus without precession´s problems on the Wheel´s axis, of acceleration against W→Track←E produced by the Coriolis effect when movement´s direction is perpendicular to the gyration´s axis, that lateral charges is maximum on equator (there, a vertical movement is perpendicular tø Earth axis) and zero on poles (there, a vertical movement is parallel tø Earth axis); upwards charge to West, downwards charge to East; the gyroscopic-rigidity contributes for maintaining the gyration-axis perpendicular to the orbital trajectory... When the Maglev Train slowly arrives (Train with one opened ╚╝ side in its technical maglev-zone train´s all along over Track for can passing for both tracks: main-Track/rhombus-track/again main-Track), using now cogwheels on Zipper-Track (zippers installed on the same Maglev-Track), Train stops in Geo 0g-Station placed over one Extreme of the Gyration-Axis, next to «Port for Spacecrafts»... Passengers disembark and entering into gyratory circular corridor, they take now the interior-elevator of one of the Wheel´s hollow-radius (also could be an exterior-elevator running for a simple zipper-radius), and tunnel "descending" till Hotel into the final Zone-1g...where while Station-Wheel goes turning, the immense O2 producer Hydroponics Garden receives a filtered Sun light...and there are Earth awesome views.